The wealthy, which had leisure time, were greatly concerned with fashion and had complex garments designed and made by individual dressmakers and tailors. The French courts were particularly well known for their display of lavish styles. Rose Bertin, who designed for the French royalty of the eighteenth century, was one of the first and most famous of the fashion designers. Her male counterpart is still a legend - Beau Brummell. About 1764, James Hargreaves of England invented a spinning jenny that made it possible to spin thread by a crude machine. Approximately twenty years after the invention of the spinning machine, a loom powered by steam was invented by Edmund Cartwright. This invention opened the way to the rapid production of fabrics. By the early 1800s, housewives were accustomed to making clothing, although they could by that time purchase materials from dry goods stores. Ready-made dresses were still a development of the future. People who could afford to do so employed dressmakers to make clothing for their family.
In Frederic Worth’s design work job, he opened the first exclusive dress salon in Paris in 1854. To this day, French fashions are imitated in the United States, even though the American garment industry has assumed a position of leadership in clothing production throughout the world. In 1863, the first mass-produced paper patterns were introduced by Ebenezer Butterick, and even today, home sewing is still an important part of the American fashion scene. After the invention of the sewing machine in 1846, ways were devised by which clothing could be produced in quantities through mass production. Just before the turn of the twentieth century, the cutting machine was invented. Other factory methods began to be advised to make it possible to turn out more garments in one week than had previously been possible in a year’s work. In 1980, more than 275 million dresses were manufactured in the U.S. With their career design, fashion designers make designs in most of the angles and styles that are part of everyone’s costumes and fashion. Oftentimes, a designer may also make designs on both interior and exterior garments, even in a hat, purse, shoes, glove, costume jewelries, scarves, or beach wear. The designer’s original idea for a garment is usually sketched. After the first rough sketch has been prepared, the designer begins to shape the patterned pieces that made up the garments. Sketches were made in said pieces as to the needed sizes are desired, then are cut out from its material which is often a muslin. Muslin pieces are sewn which is then fitted to a certain model.
Furthermore, the designer jobs make modifications in the pattern pieces or other features of the rough mock-up and thus complete the design. From the draft model, garments are then produced in the fabric that the designer intended to use. Sample clothes are shown off at a “showing” to which press representatives and buyers are invited and which designers supervise.
In many organizations, some designers are part of every step and procedure that goes into in the production line. This goes from a mere abstract concept into a real and finished product. Some designers so far want to manage a certain workplace. The rest may be content to work along with workroom supervisors and help find means in case troubles and problems that may arise during the production. Moreover, designers work cooperatively with the head of the manufacturing firm by which they are employed. They design a line that is consistent with the ideas of their employers. They also must work cooperatively with those who do the actual production of the garments and should be able to estimate the cost of a garment.
Finally, designers need to invest more time in research and experimental activities in order to increase their knowledge and skills and discover new product innovations. Network plant visitations with joint cooperation with other fabric manufacturers and sales establishments provide the effective means to improve the quality of the products, services and the whole productivity of the fashion and designing industry.
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